Computers and Information Processing

The two states of binary devices are conveniently designated by the binary digits, or bits, zero (0) and one (1).As the use of phonetic alphabets in Oriental cultures is not yet widespread, they may be converted to ideographic by means of a dictionary lookup.Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.Educational Psychology Professor Dan Moos Information Processing Theory in Context. between human memory and computers in the 1950s and 1960s.Digital-to-analog converters are available as inexpensive boards for microcomputers or as software for larger machines.Description and content analysis of digital-form information The description of an electronic document generally follows the principles of bibliographic cataloging if the document is part of a database that is expected to be accessed directly and individually.As an individual and societal resource, information has some interesting characteristics that separate it from the traditional notions of economic resources.Since these institutions alone are not able to keep up with the output of such documents and records, new forms of cooperative planning and sharing recorded materials are evolving—namely, public and private, national and regional library networks and consortia.Subject similarity is, however, a pragmatic phenomenon that varies with the observer and the circumstances of an observation (purpose, time, and so forth).

The phrase primary literature is used to designate original information in various printed formats: newspapers, monographs, conference proceedings, learned and trade journals, reports, patents, bulletins, and newsletters.Magnetic characters, bar codes, and special marks are printed on checks, labels, and forms for subsequent sensing by magnetic or optical readers and conversion to digital form.

On the other hand, the data type of the document (text, sound, etc.) is critical to its transmission and use.Its major advantage over the hierarchical and network structures is the ability to handle unanticipated data relationships without pointers.This chapter discusses the status of standardization in the field of computers and information processing, an activity that had its formal beginnings in 1960.


The earliest Chinese writing, dating to the 2nd millennium bc, is preserved on animal bone and shell, while early writing in India was done on palm leaves and birch bark.Because of the semantic ambiguities involved in free-text indexing, however, the precision of the key-word retrieval technique—that is, the percentage of relevant documents correctly retrieved from a collection—is far from ideal, and various modifications have been introduced to improve it.The pragmatic advantages of alphabetic writing systems over the pictographic became apparent twice in the past millennium: after the invention of the movable-type printing press in the 15th century and again with the development of information processing by electronic means since the mid-1940s.Used to produce books as well as cards, charms, and calendars, block printing spread to Korea and Japan but apparently not to the Islamic or European Christian civilizations.By the 4th century ad, parchment came to be the principal writing material in Europe.

Use of the television set in text-oriented information systems has been limited to menu-oriented applications such as videotex, in which information is selected from hierarchically arranged menus (with the aid of a numeric keyboard attachment) and displayed in fixed frames.Information represented digitally in two-state, or binary, form is often referred to as digital information.The analogy between human cognition and computer functioning adopted by the information processing approach is limited. Computers.For more than three centuries, formal communication in the scientific community has relied on the scholarly and professional periodical, widely distributed to tens of thousands of libraries and to tens of millions of individual subscribers.The first method is keyboard entry and the second method is source data entry.The stored material therefore cannot be linguistically manipulated by text processing and other software techniques.

Inventory of recorded information The development of recording media and techniques enabled society to begin building a store of human knowledge.The more sophisticated of present-day OCR programs distinguish shapes, sizes, and pitch of symbols—including handwriting—and learn from experience.Even though there are many systems, the four that will be elaborated are the following: transaction processing.Printers Computer printers are commonly divided into two general classes according to the way they produce images on paper: impact and nonimpact.Residing in thousands of databases distributed worldwide, a growing portion of this vast resource is now accessible almost instantaneously via the Internet, the web of computer networks linking the global communities of researchers and, increasingly, nonacademic organizations.The seven-bit ASCII code is capable of representing up to 128 alphanumeric and special characters—sufficient to accommodate the writing systems of many phonetic scripts, including Latin and Cyrillic.This view stems from evidence that the possession, manipulation, and use of information can increase the cost-effectiveness of many physical and cognitive processes.

Other techniques were developed alongside printing—for example, etching in stone and metal.Sounds assumed their meaning by convention—namely, by the use to which they were consistently put.Consequently, the database text itself can be stored as a simple ordered sequential file of records.

Aside from document imaging applications, digital scanning is used for transmission of documents via facsimile, in satellite photography, and in other applications.During the 20th century, versatile electromagnetic media opened up new possibilities for capturing original analog information.The husbanding of recorded information has become a matter of public policy, as many countries have established national libraries and archives to direct the orderly acquisition of analog-form documents and records.So you upgraded your computer hardware and rewrote thousands of lines of code to ready your.Because the eight-bit ASCII code is inadequate for a number of writing systems, either because they are nonalphabetic or because their phonetic scripts possess large numbers of diacritical marks, the computer industry in 1991 began formulating a new international coding standard based on 16 bits.The choice of a particular storage structure is governed by the relevance of the relationships it allows to be represented to the information-processing requirements of the task or system at hand.At the very heart of cognitive psychology is the idea of information processing.Unlike other resources, information is expansive, with limits apparently imposed only by time and human cognitive capabilities.When more robust and reliable techniques become available and the process is made computationally tractable (as is expected with parallel computers), humans will be able to interact with computers via spoken commands and queries on a routine basis.

Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.There and in the bookmaking industry of Korea, where the method was applied more extensively during the 15th century, the ideographic type was made initially of baked clay and wood and later of metal.

Information processing theory - Wikipedia

Key-word searches can be made either more general or more narrow in scope by means of logical operators (e.g., disjunction and conjunction).In treating the basic elements of information processing, it distinguishes between information in analog and digital form, and it describes its acquisition, recording, organization, retrieval, display, and techniques of dissemination.The large number of typefaces required for pictographic text composition continued to handicap printing in the Orient until the present time.Interest in information phenomena increased dramatically in the 20th century, and today they are the objects of study in a number of disciplines, including philosophy, physics, biology, linguistics, information and computer science, electronic and communications engineering, management science, and the social sciences.From the Middle East the concept of document collections penetrated the Greco-Roman world.Document imaging utilizes digital scanners to generate a digital representation of a document page.Information Processing Definition - Information processing refers to the manipulation of digitized information by computers and other digital electronic.Prospective students who searched for Online Courses and Classes in Data Processing found the following information and resources relevant and helpful.

Whereas early query languages were originally so complex that interacting with electronic databases could be done only by specially trained individuals, recent interfaces are more user-friendly, allowing casual users to access database information.Until the development of the digital computer, cognitive information was stored and processed only in analog form, basically through the technologies of printing, photography, and telephony.

INFORMATION PROCESSING 7 Name Basic Computer Terms

Get information, facts, and pictures about Information Processing at Make research projects and school reports about Information Processing easy.The choice of a particular coding system depends on the size of the character set to be represented.Take this Technology Quiz at Enyclopedia Britannica to test your knowledge of machines, computers, and various other technological innovations.